PPSR’s Contributions to Science

Conference on Public Participation in Scientific Research, Day 1 Session 2 – 8/4/2012

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To Use or Not To Use: Is That the Data?
Terry Root

Examples of PPSR biogeography – huge collections with enormous monetary value. Can go back to the 1800s to understand egg laying for phenology changes. Everything was fine with older data – 800K eggs have been digitized, but newer data is problematic because eggs couldn’t be collected. So now nest record cards need to be digitized. These data were used to save peregrine falcon and brown pelican from DDT risks.

Starting in Victorian times, people were interested in learning more about what they saw but no field guides available – so Arm & Hammer distributed species cards in their baking soda! Has evolved into Christmas Bird Count through a circuitous route.

Once data were computerized, they started to find data could be used very well to answer RQs. Birdwatchers knew more about irruptive phenomena than scientists, probably caused by climate. Was then able to look at distribution and abundance from CBC data and find out the range change for species.

Many other data sets go way back, priceless info saved by hiding under a mattress! Many of the historical data are in private and museum collections. Big growth in large long-term datasets that are badly needed to address big questions. We are now poised on the edge of a huge explosion of data, but what does misidentification mean for data quality? We used to throw away these data, but now we can use smartphones with cameras and social networks to get info about many things from large number of people into scientifically useable datasets. iNaturalist a great example of how this is working really well – already seeing exponential growth and going viral soon. 3 yo can use it and get excited about finding out what a species is.

The Role of “Citizen Science” in Weather and Climate Research
Noel Doesken

Early traditions of weather observation started in US by Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. They communicated to try to understand what was going on, but didn’t have spatial and temporal context. Smithsonian project from 1849 introduced new technologies, telegraph to share weather observations.

Analysis and interpretation of volunteer data more difficult than recruiting volunteers, getting as many as 500K data points/year, which was when standardization became a big issue. Took 12 years to report on the data, so volunteers had to be very patient.

Colorado state weather service started establishing state-based weather observing networks in the late 1880s with only $2K. Within 10 years there was a solid reporting network, led to nationwide “Cooperative Network” that continues today. First purposes were simple – climate resources of the country, particularly what crops could be grown where and when, also equally important to predict extreme weather.

In bigger picture, most of the data are very skewed geographically, but a very impressive foundation. Many applications, both scientific and practical, such as climate and health – “a stinking big deal.” Have learned from historical data that there are weather cycles that is helping model weather. Dustbowl and depression increased interest in weather and climate, advanced use of volunteer data. Majority of drought monitoring is from citizen science.

Naturally this leads to understanding climate change – CoCoRaHS is keeping this going. We need more rain gauges and finer granularity of placement.

Foldit and Games for Scientific Discovery
Seth Cooper

Many people playing video games, what if we could direct that to solving problems for science? Combining human and computational power, as well as a way to motivate people to engage and solve problems they didn’t think they could contribute to.

One area where there’s lots of potential is biochemistry – proteins and protein folding. Very important part of life. Two ways to look at it, sequences and 3D structures. Hard to solve folding problems algorithmically. Foldit lets gamers use the 3D visualizations and both human and computational tools to solve problems. Have had 250K people play the game, over 100 protein structure puzzles.

Scoring and leaderboards help promote competition which motivates gamers. Technical structures are complex, but robust for solving difficult puzzles. Constantly releasing new features and bug fixes, and giving players feedback. Worldwide community participating, multiple languages. Players have produced very exciting results, protein related to AIDS virus in monkeys, algorithms failed but players succeeded in 3 weeks!

Ended up implementing scripting structure for “recipes” so players could reuse functions – player algorithm independently discovered scientist algorithms, perform better! Made trophy for early winning player, keeps it on his desk. Also co-creating structures, now making interface tools for scientists – when tool is fun and easy for everyone, also useful for scientists.

The Many Benefits of PPSR
Linda Silka

CBPR – community based participatory research – no research on us without us. Academic research may not be the right way to address problems.

Working with tribal groups on emerald ash borer in Maine – not many ash trees but they are critical to tribal traditions and economic opportunities. CBPR is growing just like citizen science – there are organizations, journals, and grants for training and cross-disciplinary support.

CBPR successes – adding rigor to data collection, need to merge professional and local knowledge to solve problems. Example from tribal lands in Nevada about nuclear contamination – researcher vector model didn’t take into community food sources. Other examples of ways that community knowledge is strengthening scientific outcomes, e.g. incinerators and air quality household health studies – very concerned about children but had concerns, wanted dialogue with researchers. Similar outcomes in emerald ash borer studies, nutritional studies.

Linking knowledge to action by bringing in local stakeholders; federal research agencies/foundations reviewing proposals differently to promote broader impacts. Using research cycle as tool to understand issues that emerge at each stage. Many questions remain about assumptions and unknowns.

Lots of resources at http://CCPH.info.

Looking Back, Moving Forward in PPSR

Conference on Public Participation in Scientific Research, Day 1 Session 1 – 8/4/2012

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PPSR: How We Got Here and Where We Go Now
Abe Miller-Rushing

Exciting to bring wide range of disciplines together and develop a more global perspective. Take-aways: PPSR is not new, has always been important to science, and is growing and innovating very quickly.

Models for PPSR – taxonomy of projects by degree of involvement of participants, contributory, collaborative, and co-created.

How we got here: Science began as amateur research with Plato and Aristotle, often by rich people who had money and time. Some of the most important science has relied on public participation, e.g. Linneas. Professionalization of science has marginalized public participation and that’s where we are today.

Nonetheless, PPSR has continued, just not always labeled as such or recognized as broadly as it should be. Originally it was often specimens, but now it’s usually observational data. It’s also used to solve local problems, and that’s an important role. Big data sets are also being generated through citizen science, some of these are the most important for their field, for example NOAA’s weather data that is being used to understand climate change.

Recent developments: huge improvements in tech, communication, data storage, analysis & best practices, this kind of revolution is not without precedent. Another big advance is with explicit participant-focused outcomes, which is still fairly new.

We need data over wide time periods and geographic ranges to achieve many of our scientific goals moving forward. Things like fine-scale weather observations through CoCoRaHS which is really important for decision-making; looking at changes in phenology to understand climate change and losses in biodiversity, e.g. findings from looking at Thoreau’s data through time with current citizen science data.

Many applications: images and sound analysis; real-time data for near-term predications; collection and transcription of historical records; health and environmental justice.

Huge growth in PPSR recently, e.g. with ISI on peer-reviewed publications – exponential growth in last 6 years. More to come as cross-disciplinary dialogue, collaboration & innovation develop. Now we see a need to formalize and support the field and practitioners. Still getting push-back at NPS for making management decisions based on PPSR data.

Where do you want PPSR to go? What does the field need? What do you need in your role in PPSR? What should an organization for PPSR do? Poster session opportunities to post your responses to important questions. Will be using this feedback in closing session discussion – please participate and help us act on these recommendations from the community.

Q: Issues – recognition of citizen science and use of the language in publications – what is this doing to help legitimize PPSR.

Grand Challenges and Big Data: Implications for PPSR
Bill Michener

Challenges we face, scientifically and technologically, focusing on data issues as that’s where the rubber hits the road from a science perspective. Many issues we are concerned about, primarily related to climate change, clean energy, and so on. We’re in a new age where we’re hitting some tipping points and likely to see very abrupt changes that will have significant impact on future and quality of life on earth.

Many tools being used for data-intensive science, but data management is one of the challenges standing in the way of results – we need to speed up time to results and reduce time on mundane tasks like data management. Another key challenge is expanding participation.

Major concern – where are the data? We need to be able to integrate data to address major scientific challenges. This leads to the long-tail distribution of data problem with many data orphans. Jim Gray – “Most of the bytes are at the high end, but most of the datasets are at the low end.” Brings up an important question – we’re all familiar with the research life cycle, but how do we link it to the data life cycle?

Solutions: DataONE is addressing some key issues, e.g. data preservation. Intro to http://www.dataone.org.

One of the main science data management/analysis tools currently in use is Excel [shifting toward Google Docs]. D1 is developing tools for R, which is one of the second-most popular tools for analysis, working with many partners.

Issue 2: Data discovery – not easily found with traditional search tools. Major project of D1 has been ONEMercury for searching across datasets.

Issue 3: Tools for innovation and discovery. We’re in the 4th paradigm of research, focus on data-intensive research that requires new tools, techniques, and ways of doing research. Another way the investigator toolkit fits in to address this question. Examples include DMPTool, data management planning tool – helps get grants funded for agencies requiring data management plans, but should be a consideration for PPSR projects. Supports 12+ templates required by different agencies with walk-through series of steps to address required points for data management plans. At the most, all you need to do with this after going through wizard is change font.

Upcoming tool: DataUp to check Excel spreadsheets for best practices, create metadata and connect to ONEShare, one of the D1 repositories – all for free.

Finally, need for tools for exploration, visualization, and analysis. Example needed data layers from several sources to address research question, one only found through word of mouth, had to develop new modeling tools and work with new tool (VisTrails) to develop visualization.

People and Participation: Educational and Community Components of PPSR Projects
Heidi Ballard

Came to PPSR as HS teacher, then worked in community-based forest management, and then working with science education at UC Davis.

Need to look at PPSR across different practices. Many disciplines and goals represented here: biochem, ecology, astronomy, nat rsc mgt, and public health. Also have: psych, sci & enviro ed, social justice & community development, sociology, anthropology.

Names for PPSR categories are called different names by other scholars, this is explored in recent Ecology & Society article. Need to think about more than degree of participation and what part of scientific process. Other important aspects related to quality – Whose interests are being served, and to what end? Who makes decisions? Who has the power?

This leads into discussions of democratizing science – role of PPSR is improved science understanding for everyone, which results in better research. Examples include LiMPETS monitoring 600 miles of CA’s National Marine Sanctuaries, students taking it very seriously because it will be used for science. Additional examples related to rice growing and health impacts.

Looking at social and educational outcomes of PPSR – individual, programmatic, & community level. Often PPSR focuses on programmatic level – audience reach, engagement, program strengths/weaknesses, etc. Current work focusing on individual learning outcomes, and community-level outcomes are exciting area to develop – social capital, community capacity, economic impacts, trust between public, scientists & managers.

Her main question is: if we think about intertwining of social & ecological systems, many stakeholders involved, can we improve their resilience?